We used to model network contingency with a single failure of components. Such reliability measure can be further studied with extensive combinatorial events where a catastrophic disruption could massively destruct infrastructures. It is imperative the models are extended in a holistic manner to address unexpected consequences and introduce grid flexibility and robustness with distributed autonomy when major part of the network is compromised.

How big is the malware threat?

560,000 new malwares are detected everyday, and in excess of 1 billion malwares exist out there

How frequently companies are attacked?

Every minute, four companies fall victim to ransomware attacks. Trojans account for 58% of all computer malware

What's the threat malware pose?

20 million IoT malware attacks were detected in the first half of 2020

SECURITY has many definitions. From the Merriam-Webster dictionaries and power engineering definition,  the evolving term can be defined as one of the following:


Adequacy of energy supply from power engineering perspective

Danger/Threat Free

The state of being free from danger or threat of being secure electronically and physically


A thing deposited or pledged as a guarantee of the fulfillment of an undertaking or the repayment of a loan, to be forfeited in case of default.

Instrument of Investment

An instrument of investment in the form of a document (such as a stock certificate or bond) providing evidence of its ownership

Recent Power Supply
Chain Attacks

July 2010 | Stuxnet

Attack on SCADA control systems irreparably damaged centrifuge equipment at Iranian nuclear facilities

October 2010 | Metasploit

The security tools was developed to explore system vulnerabilities; hackers began using it to target Industrial Control System (ICS) devices

August 2012 | Shamoon

Virus destroys data as means to disrupt operations. Hit 15 state and private entities in Saudi Arabia

December 2015 | Ukraine

Power Grid 1 (BlackEnergy) Attackers deployed SCADA-related plugins to control ICS and turn off power to 230,000 residents of western Ukraine

Winter 2018 | Critical Infrastructure Vendors

US-CERT alerts state-sponsored attacks on critical infrastructure vendors

We hope you
share our vision

We are a synergistic group of the vibrant research program at Michigan Tech. Our goals are to integrate new discovery of knowledge and commercialize research. If you are interested in contributing to our research group. Feel free to reach out to CIResilience Research.